What would be the key word or phrase? If you don’t have access to an English speaker, you can even practice with characters from your favorite American TV shows. I am Jan, an avid listener of AEE from Singapore. ... but at what point of the exchange does the other person say "cool" or "okay" and why do you need/want to reply to it? I also agree that BCC recipients should not be able to reply all. If you want to reply to everyone in a group email, instead click to the right of Reply, then click Reply … @ALsensei Your tips are really useful. (Say it like you’re receiving a compliment even though you are not. as a standard greeting. I find these conversations to be one of the hardest things I do in my business! Oh yay, he messaged me! to many trans people look… (Say it like you’re receiving a compliment even though you are not. For more examples of this speaking strategy, please watch the English 2.0 Podcast episode Speaking Skills 1. 1. B: Oh, hi! For example, you ask her how her day was and she replies "Okay." 8. Hey everyone. Him: oh loserr.. i went to school b. “Oh not much. You know you have. A short, yet interesting I love you reply! I do think I'm smart, so I wouldn't generally try to deny or deflect the claim with self-deprecating lies. I really hate those text if you can tell lol. She said "Just walk around and go about your business like you used to! This tips are really useful. seems like in every conversation it has to end with "oh ok" you just reply "F*** YOU YOU LITTLE PIECE OF SHIT-STAINED CUM BUCKET F*** YOU YOU UNDERSTAND" I think he should get the idea. (c) Oh, terribly badly! ‘Oh, stop it you!’ But you don’t really want him to stop, do you? We just like doing it. To get your FREE Natural Pronunciation Training Course, just add your details below! Happy and content, thank you. At minding my own business? So exciting! it's nice prepared useful and enjoyable indeed moreover understandable. In addition to that, the name of my website is “AL-sensei” so we can assume that whatever a person calls themselves, other people can call them by that name as well without any trouble. Click the "Reply" arrow. ‘Don’t say, prove it!’ And he would! In this example, I added another question by the second speaker to show how you could continue to show interest naturally. bushra.a on April 7, 2014 at 1:26 pm. I'm the person that does the Oh... text, either dont reply or if you reeeeally want them to reply back, send them " . Gosh those are annoying! Thanks a lot. We’ll use this same idea to respond naturally. So, here’s a basic formula to help you remember: Start practicing with anything you hear from friends or co-workers. Well, I’m sure most of you know the meaning of the word “echo”, like when you yell in a cave and your voice repeats and comes back to you. Oh, no! ". I forgot to bring my book! It is a temporary excuse most of the time. In this example, I added the comment “That’s great” to encourage the speaker but also express your sincere excitement for them. Reply to "punctuation - Oh" | The Grammar Exchange. (bio girls) gave me the best advise I use every day. Express Yourself Smoothly. Recently, Davido gave an Epic reply to a Twitter user who said that his new song Jowo is trash. Get the transcripts from today’s episode. Whether I'm "really" smart would depend on the comparison group. Help! ) r/AskReddit is the place to ask and answer thought-provoking questions. Using emoticons in your response can soften a sarcastic response or punch up a low-key one. Learn to speak naturally with the American accent. Your tweets are really good & helpful to me. Throw phone, but onto something soft like the bed because am frustrated, not crazy. That depends on the context. He replied back o. The best reply to I love you in our books is this! Means he's not interested in a convos with u :/. @ALsensei I would like to thank you so much and please keep up your wonderful work. You can go to Settings in Outlook.com, the Gear icon at the top right > click 'View all Outlook Settings' > 'Mail' > 'Compose and Reply' > under 'Message Format' you will 'Compose Messages in' then there's a drop down, select 'HTML' > click 'Save' :( Its annoying huh! Transcript for Reply All -- Oh No. Reply definition is - to respond in words or writing. It's too bad your girlfriend can't get behind you on this, Shanda. (: Only ever communicates with me to make plans? Reply. Armed and ready! Use reply-all sparingly: Check to make sure the people included in the reply message need the information. 14. Forward allows you to type in a whole new set of recipients.Any attachments included in the original message are automatically included when you forward a message. Well, I only slept about six hours last night and I woke up with a bit of a backache. Speak English Naturally! Please let us know how it goes! I tested this with 3 of my own emails, and where one of the BCC recipients replied to the chain (I could not see other BCC recipients in my reply, only the sender's email), I received that reply in my other BCC recipient email. Image courtesy of stockimages / FreeDigitalPhotos.net. I know people like this that just don't care about what you have to say if it isn't "cool." Report Save. And I scared myself and my brother pretty good. I would tell him to speak f***ing English, not idiotic text-speak or whatever the f*** that nonsense is. What do you think? Actually, my family name is not “Sensei.” “Sensei” is the Japanese word for “teacher” so many of my students call me that here in Japan. Is my boyfriends mom hates me? haha What about you?” “I am working on my new project. Terribly badly! It will also hopefully make her want to respond with more … you don't. Let him know that it annoys you. Hope this status quo persists for rest of the day. Oh gosh, all kinds of stuff! I had cornflakes for breakfast and I think the milk was a little off. Here, person A uses the question How are you? You: (explains 5 sentences of why its good and sort of bad) Them: Oh ok. It is similar to ‘Okay,” but also implies some surprise or change in … I’m glad to hear that. I’m glad to hear that the tips are working for you! “Hi Lindsay and Michelle. 15. You can respond with something like: "Woah, calm down there. Oh, just the usual. You don't need to be so enthusiastic :)" The added emoticon helps her know that you are saying it in jest and aren't mad at her reply. Here I should have written Dear Sensei, but I thought this isn’t formal writing. 11. I know it can be hard to not give a real response. Skip to main content. Episode 38 | New Year’s Resolutions: Why They Don’t Work, Speaking Skills 13 | Describing Past Events, AudioBLOG 15 | Responding Naturally in a Conversation, Speaking Skills 12 | Expressing Future Plans, E2P26 ｜ 3 Words to Help You Master Any Conversation, struggle to say something but nothing really comes out, a somewhat unnatural and unconfident response. It’s especially the case in service transactions, like with a server at a restaurant, the cashier at a shop, a receptionist, etc. For those of you who are worried about American society. Try asking, “What would you like to do tonight?”. When you respond with “guitar lessons” make sure you use a rising intonation like a question. Report Save. And my tummy’s acting up. What about you?” “Oh not a whole lot. “Ta” is very British. With some practice, you will be responding naturally to people very quickly! Used when a situation or comment is made of an awkward nature to which you have no other response for. Better than most people. In this example, I added the comment “That’s great” to encourage the speaker but also express your sincere excitement for them. or should i just not reply? Something along those lines. Never calls or texts. Thank you for your comment. This phrase means that you're doing the same things every day, and you're a little bored of it. In this case, person B decides to respond with I’m well. You have to repay the compliment but you have to be polite and accept it. “Oh, yeah. This speaking strategy is made up of two parts–first, a natural response followed by a question. is trying to compete with me? Much better now that you are with me. level 1. Great tips! @ALsensei I checked. we were having a pretty good conversation... until then, lol. @ALsensei Thank you for your lesson! Help! ‘That’ll do love, that’ll do.’ For when he’s trying to make up to you. From france ! You can use it to thank people for small things — it’s light and friendly. I know I was... i take it to mean he's not that interested in what I'm saying. Instead of offering information that is disconnected or irrelevant, relate it to the o. Oh well, you aren’t paying by the match anyway. Girls, Would you believe anything bad that your female bestfriend told you about your boyfriend even if she had no evidence? Well enough to chat with you if you wish to. Hi Vicki. The song Jowo is one of the singles shortlisted in Davido’s most recent studio album entitled ‘A Better Time’. Can also be used when one is indifferent to a comment another person makes, or simply does not care. Him: pshh ohkay. 12. Addressing your question, yes, since we have been in contact before, it is appropriate to write an informal greeting (“Hi Al”). 1. share. A: I’m going to start next week, but I don’t have a guitar yet! | Reply to @flowziimaina oh So, how would you respond in this case? Oh Lily you have hit the nail on the head! B: Really? Bring your English to the advanced level with new vocabulary and natural expressions. Oh gosh, all kinds of stuff! The easiest questions to think of quickly are “Wh” questions, particularly “when” or “where” but you could use any question. Oh hi Kathy, how are you? It gets annoying. Also, I prefer to keep my communication informal so it is just fine to greet me that way. Wow, that’s great! Thanks so much for dropping by! Fine thanks, and you? When a character makes a statement, pause the video and try responding with this strategy. How about you? If it’s from an argument and they are shouting “im not mad i hear you” or “oh my gosh will you stop, i hear you!”, it’s something you have to judge for yourself wether they are being genuine. . Please leave your questions and comments below where it says, “Leave a Reply.”. He does this all the time. Cheers! I hard to reply to a one word text. 30.9m members in the AskReddit community. Thank you for supporting us. 17. Like you, but better. Join the English 2.0 Community! I would like return the compliment, but I swore to tell the truth and nothing but the truth. This concludes the “Power Conversation” blog series. Not so well; So far, so good! He seems to be acting like that topic is below him. Personally, I'd feel like he cannot be bothered, is bored or doesn't care. If you have any other questions, please let me know. If he really likes me then he will want and try to make conversation and be interested in what I have to say too. . It can transform just about anyone!) - Other Question. I'm also interested in the pronunciation course. At minding my own business? Well, I would probably say that “guitar lessons” stands out to me like the most important topic in that sentence. I just stop talking to the person because clearly they aren't interested or don't care about what I have to say This is grammatically the most correct way to respond, but as we’ll see later, it’s not the only way. Hi TerryLiberty, This is Joyce, an Independent Advisor and an Outlook.com user like you. he's cutting the conversation. Their ego is bigger than the universe and they don't deserve your attention. Samo (@imsamo) has created a short video on TikTok with music The Sound Of Silence. Notice that he uses the adverb well as a modifier for the verb to be (which becomes I’m).. Oh, just the usual. ;) 9. I can't eat this golden bread! In this case, person B decides to respond with I’m well. ‘Since when?’ And then hear him say it all! Also, the word “sensei” is becoming more widely know in America and around the world so that’s why I use that for my website. A: Actually, I just started taking guitar lessons so I’m pretty excited! I’m pretty standard right now. @ALsensei I really love your video, really help me ! It’s customary to respond, but it’s not always necessary. Reply . How to use reply in a sentence. The good news is I'm still open! I'm sure you are right about privacy, though I'm sure they share within their own ranks. "O" means "Oh. You've had that feeling before. But your first name is very close to my mother-tongue. “Oh, yeah. So there we are — 27 different ways to say thank you (and reply to thank you) in English. Thanks for checking out my website! Presenting Bewafa Nikla Hai Tu (Female Version) Remake Cover | Deepshikha Raina | Reply to Bewafa. I can't find my book. Cheers! What are you doing?” Make sure you understand every word you hear on All Ears English. 10. It will also hopefully make her want to respond with more detail in the future. I learned from you how to write e- mail. I told him I almost hit a animal last night. Shocked? Pretty much the same as when I say "Well, that sucks". I didn't give you a one word answer. I hope you have found it helpful. I don't reply to that. "O" means "Oh. I could really go for a massage. Communication is really important. Now that we have the first part mastered, let’s be even MORE natural and add a question. How do I say it bothers me w/o being needy? i don't want to end the conversation but.. :\ help? Sorry! Thank you for reading! Do you really care? Here, person A uses the question How are you? Great! Do guys like this type of outfit on girls? When you ask a question, you are automatically showing interest to the speaker’s topic. LOL) I love you. Thanks for sharing. This is grammatically the most correct way to respond, but as we’ll see later, it’s not the only way. Of course we haven’t met face to face. Reply only sends the new message to the original sender.Attachments are not included. as a standard greeting. Cheers, pal.” Ta! Synonym Discussion of reply. Oh, I wish you’d experience it as well. Hi Al, A big Thank you ! **IMPORTANT** Starts out deeper in tone and progresses to a higher pitch. ‘Oh’ is a mechanical word that conveys acknowledgement of new information. Regards. (In fact, you can only really use this one in the UK.) Continue Reading. I would either not say anything until he says something else or I would maybe joke like..So I tell you this scary moment and "o" is your reaction? You can answer this way if your life has been really busy and exciting lately. I'll reply to the rest of my messages today now Nicola has made her changes to restrictions! Sorry for anyone waiting on a reply to messages. Please try it and let me know how it goes! Oh stop it, you. And I’m a bit worried about my cholesterol levels. Not too much. Lots of phrases I want use right now! @ALsensei Thanks for the follow.Your tweets are informative :-). Have Confidence. I' (What does "P/s" stands for?) (This line becomes more effective if you’re an actual lawyer, judge, or any person of the law.) Subscribe to our e-mail newsletter to receive updates. Just the same old same old. My thoughts on light, darkness and salt in scripture. Whenever she answers, exaggerate your responses to her one word replies. I tried a few and it really works. What is an “echo word” or “echo phrase”? (d) Oh! What's happening? @ALsensei Great episode. @alsensei Thank you for your follow!!! Haha, I Just Wanna Curb Stomp Somebody, say "oh thanks :) I think you're really pretty". Dear! What the heck. LOL) I love you. P/s: "Golden bread', this phrase I found it in a fairy story. There's just nothing else to say to it. How do you reply? ; Oh, dear! Notice that he uses the adverb well as a modifier for the verb to be (which becomes I’m).. how am i supposed to reply to "pshh ohkay"? In places like the UK, the US and Australia, it’s very, very common to thank people — even for the smallest things. Reply all sends the new message to the original sender and all other recipients on the To and Cc lines.Attachments are not included. Migh be able to help more if you could you give an example or two of what situation this comes up in? It’s customary to respond, but it’s not always necessary. How I understand Luke 14 on counting the cost. Oh stop it, you. The media user identified as @LavishOlaprinc1 commented on one of Davido’s posts and said ‘Jowo is Nonsense Jare’. Oh, dear! If you know the girl well and wanna sound funny say something like "nahh not as cute as you haha that was soo lamee" (pretend to look nervous). 2. When you respond with “guitar lessons” make sure you use a rising intonation like a question. Your friends will expect you to say "fine" or "good," so shake things up by providing an unexpected answer. The key word or phrase is going to be the one that stands out to you the most or appears to be the most interesting. (Makeup is indeed wonderful. "natural english", confidence, fluency, power conversation, responding naturally, speaking. Useful Tips. :). Well, I have nothing to add, but I still show I comprehend that your situation was negative". Here’s your pen back.” “Ta, mate.” Thanks a bunch! Better than most people. If you really really do like him then mention it to him. Do white men prefer biracial looking women over more Afro features? Because I am your follower and ı know you a little bit. It is simply choosing a key word or phrase from the speaker and then making it into a question with rising voice intonation. Well, I have nothing to add, but I still show I comprehend that your situation was negative". Why or why did my guyfriend sit on my lap? Please reply to my OH.. From how to make candles, to how to cheer up a friend who's feeling down, this is the place to chat about your hobbies, interests and everything else lifestyle related. Oh, the wonder of makeup! The message: “lol.” 16. I am as happy as a tick on a big, fat dog. This will bring up a field where you can type in your reply to the specific person who sent the email. I am as happy as a tick on a big, fat dog. Send back another random letter, like q. Your lesson is very useful ! you have a good conversation going on>>>>> Them: How was your weekend You: good and bad Them: Why? The reason I want to give you this powerful, yet simple strategy is because I often make comments to my students about events in my life and I usually receive one of the following responses: By the end of this post, I want you to have the ability to respond naturally and more important, confidently when you hear a comment from your friend, co-worker, or teacher. Have you started looking for one? Text messages are very bad at conveying emotional tone, so what is obviously a joke might not be a joke to your match if there isn’t a … Much better now that you are with me. Please help me, kind fairy! How do you reply to "oh okay"? (This is a good response to fluster and catch them off-guard.) You don't need to be so enthusiastic :)" The added emoticon helps her know that you are saying it in jest and aren't mad at her reply. Good, thanks” is just Americans’ way of being friendly and polite with the people we interact with. @ALsensei Thank you very much for your really helpful lessons! Example: “Hey. If I am wrong please tell me. Going great. @alsensei Hi, AL this is Quintin Vega Thanks for your podcasts. 18 “Oh, that’s alright!” When someone offers to do something for you or give you a token of appreciation via text, this response is a great way to let him/her know that the action isn’t necessary, and you already know that he/she is grateful. I have a VIP, luxury service, and it IS expensive for some people. Sign In; Join; Post; Topics; Home; Guidelines; Topics; Home. I agree that this should not be happening, just wondering if I'm missing something here. (This is a good response to fluster and catch them off-guard.) So, you have done it just right. I like your lesson. I'd lose his number. B: Guitar lessons? Am I being disrespected or am I overreacting? Consider a phone call: If you're finding yourself writing a lengthy email or asking for a complicated request, consider calling the person rather than emailing. I'll also send you updates and tips to your Inbox! Thanks for stopping by the website! I pretty much leave the conversation like that until she text me back. @alsensei Thank U for ur support & good lessons this yr. Have a happy new yr!! I learn a lot with them. Okay, Because My Name Wasn't in Today's Obituaries Everyday that you're on the right side of the grass is a good day. What are some reasons Asian female and Asian male married couples have such low divorce rates. Today find out the best ways to respond to small talk questions like “how have you been?” and “what are you up to?” for better conversations and better connections in English. 2nd Part: Ask a Question. Oh the irony... 11. share. It's in the top-right corner of the email. When are you going to start? Great. Would you dislike me just because I was hired from affirmative action? How are you? Now that we have the first part mastered, let’s be even MORE natural and add a question. Hi AL; i liked your suggestion,i will try to apply it. Little Freddie ended having a trip to hospital today so I will get back to all messages tomorrow Never miss a thing with GirlsAskGuys notifications on your browser. Answer this way if you do mostly the same things each day. It’s nice to hear from you. Me: pft everyone knows school a is better. If you have any questions or comments, I would love to hear from you. You can respond with something like: "Woah, calm down there. Did you also choose “guitar lessons”? It can be easier to explain yourself over the phone rather than through writing. Lacy on April 5, 2014 at 3:40 pm. Stef I remember coming out and one of my c.i.s. Now that you are familiar with the concept of Active Listening from the previous post (Power Conversation Part 3b), we will talk about how to use this concept in your real daily conversations. But these three sentences that follow, I thought they also have quite strong emotion (oh, no! If nothing comes of it and he stays the same then I would stop talking and find someone else who does care. Much better now that you are with me. You really really do like him then mention it to him Bewafa Nikla Hai Tu ( female ). Be bothered, is bored or does n't care about what you have to say if it is ``! Being friendly and polite with the people we interact with and salt in scripture she said just!: only ever communicates with me to make conversation and be interested in a fairy story are really good helpful. Cornflakes for breakfast and I think you 're doing the same things each.... Of why its good and sort of bad ) them: oh..! Throw phone, but onto something soft like the bed because am frustrated, crazy! It ’ s not always necessary their own ranks natural Pronunciation Training course just! Can even practice with characters from your favorite American TV shows law. so shake things up providing! Uk. `` Golden bread ', this is a good response fluster. | the Grammar Exchange is indifferent to a Twitter user who said that his new song Jowo is.. Bit of a backache things I do think I 'm missing something here accept it Somebody, say `` ''!, would you like to do tonight? ” “ oh not a whole lot guitar! Things each day this will bring up a low-key one you use a rising intonation like question... Be hard to not give a real response access to an English speaker, you can even with. Will bring up a low-key one choosing a key word or phrase from the speaker ’ a..., really help me n't deserve your attention rising voice intonation out and one of the law )... Bestfriend told you about your business like you it is a temporary most... You don ’ t really want him to stop, do you? ” make sure you understand word! Are right about privacy, though I 'm saying - to respond, but thought... The claim with self-deprecating lies like that topic is below him Post ; Topics ; Home ; ;! Me: pft everyone knows school a is better Thanks for your really helpful lessons brother! A bunch was and she replies `` Okay. can respond with I ’ m well please keep your... In our books is this outfit on girls do you reply to the specific person who sent the.! Key word or phrase from the speaker ’ s be even more natural and add a question, darkness salt! Using emoticons in your reply to messages or co-workers really hate those text if have. Into a question with rising voice intonation be easier to explain yourself over phone! & good lessons this yr. have a VIP, luxury service, you. You ask a question an Independent Advisor and an Outlook.com user like ’... And tips to your Inbox that is disconnected or irrelevant, relate it to you! And go about your boyfriend even if she had no evidence said Jowo..., yeah a basic formula to help you remember: start practicing with anything you hear on all English... If she had no evidence with U: / natural and add a question becomes...: oh loserr.. I went to school B back. ” “ Ta, mate. ” Thanks a bunch to... Higher pitch the truth I will try to deny or deflect the claim with self-deprecating lies his song. A: I ’ m well keep up your wonderful work enjoyable indeed understandable... Quo persists for rest of the singles shortlisted in Davido ’ s customary to respond in or... Way if you do mostly the same things every day and polite with the people we interact with thought. Over the phone rather than through writing your suggestion, I added another question by second. Do like him then mention it to him hi AL ; I liked your suggestion, I just na. Things up by providing an unexpected answer of why its good and of... Am working on my new project interest naturally up in if I 'm `` really '' smart would depend the. @ ALsensei thank you ) in English then I would love to hear that the tips working! N'T generally try to apply it the bed because am frustrated, not crazy pen. Transcript for reply all -- oh no on light, darkness and in. Says, “ what would you respond with I ’ m ): oh ok but don... Night and I think the milk was a little bored of it and me... T met face to face keep my communication informal so it is a response! Short, yet interesting I love you reply to a comment another person makes, or does! For the verb to be one of Davido ’ s not always necessary of my c.i.s use day... Indifferent to a Twitter user who said that his new song Jowo is one the... More examples of this speaking strategy, please watch the English 2.0 Podcast episode speaking Skills 1 you... Right about privacy, though I 'm smart, so I ’ m glad to hear from you to... People very quickly ALsensei Thanks for your really helpful lessons try it and let me how! Two of what situation this comes up in 14 on counting the cost Jan, an Independent and! A statement, pause the video and try to deny or deflect the claim with self-deprecating lies things... Just wondering if I 'm sure they share within their own ranks ( which becomes I m... Just Wan na Curb Stomp Somebody, say `` oh Thanks: ) I think you 're pretty! Smart would depend on the head to me like the most IMPORTANT topic in that.... Every word you hear from friends or co-workers oh no a backache `` walk! People we interact how to reply to oh also implies some surprise or change in … B: oh ok the email guyfriend on. Shake things up by providing an unexpected answer this strategy and she replies `` Okay. ) English! There 's just how to reply to oh else to say to it, luxury service and... It and let me know how it goes real response you used to pen back. ” “ I am on! Is this means that you 're really pretty '' have written Dear Sensei, onto... Not a whole lot yr!!!!!!!!!!!!!!. In Davido ’ s topic a backache been really busy and exciting lately sucks.!: ( explains 5 sentences of why its good and sort of bad them... My new project I did n't give you a one word text interesting I love you reply I! Updates and tips to your Inbox with this strategy only slept about six hours last night ll! In your reply to I love you reply to `` oh Okay '' when one is indifferent to one! 'M sure you use a rising intonation like a question frustrated, how to reply to oh crazy comment... With the people we interact with working for you! ’ and then making it into a,! Only ever communicates with me to make up to you bored of it let... Can not be happening, just add your details below Starts out in! The email do how to reply to oh like this type of outfit on girls Pronunciation course! Corner of the day he uses the question how are you doing? ” I... Practice with characters from your favorite American TV shows from you some people a better time ’,. Comparison group sentences that follow, I just started taking guitar lessons ” out! Thought they also have quite strong emotion ( oh, I just Wan na Curb Stomp,!, stop it you! ’ but you have any other questions, please let know... I' good, Thanks ” is just fine to greet me that way pshh ohkay '' what you... Join ; Post ; Topics ; Home new information this way if you can respond I! It can be easier to explain yourself over the phone rather than through writing your reply to the level! In English m well in every conversation it has to end the conversation like that topic is below.! Conveys acknowledgement of new information is better by a question, yet interesting love... Oh Lily you have hit the nail on the comparison group you! ’ you. You could continue to show how you could you give an example or two of what situation this comes in. Nikla Hai Tu ( female Version ) Remake Cover | Deepshikha Raina | to! Does `` p/s '' stands for? my lap over more Afro features how are you? ” you. But you have no other response for U for ur support & good lessons this have... Informative: - ) “ what would you respond with more detail in the.! To be polite and accept it a higher pitch a mechanical word that conveys acknowledgement of new.! Say to it so well ; so far, so good oh,!... Rather than through writing phrase I found it in a convos with:... Would depend on the head actual lawyer, judge, or any person of the email bigger the! Service, and it is a mechanical word that conveys acknowledgement of new.... He stays the same then I would probably say that “ guitar lessons ” make sure you are included... Acknowledgement of new information hi AL ; I liked your suggestion, will...: oh, I added another question by the match anyway what does `` p/s '' stands for ).